It has been observed that scraping of the endometrium during a hysteroscopy results in the increase of pregnancy rates. Continue reading
Infertility is not a “woman’s problem” alone. Men are responsible in 40% of the couples with infertility, although a few reports mention the percentage to be up to 50%. In 35% of the most frequent cause of infertility is the inability of the testes to produce sufficient number of healthy spermatozoa. Infertility in men may be caused by inflammatory conditions, mumps, chryptorchidism, severe injury that may destroy or block the semen production, or sperm antibodies found in either men or women. In addition, for the achievement of pregnancy, the semen volume should be sufficient, spermatozoa should be active, normal, regarding the shape and the size and they should not stick to each other or be affected by antisperm antibodies. Finally, they should be able to overcome the cervical mucus as well as other obstacles until they successfully reach the tubes and meet the egg. In their first visit to the doctor, men should give a detailed medical history and their current health condition.
Past diseases that may affect the fertilizing ability of men are:
It is possible that men’s sexual history may affect their fertilizing ability, such as:
Certain medicines, heavy smoking, drinking or recreational drugs may also affect sperm quality.
The physical examination of men should include the following:
Semen analysis examines the sperm count, motility, velocity, morphology, total semen volume and semen liquefaction. Semen analysis is performed on site. In a quiet room, the man collects by masturbation the ejaculate into a sterile cup. In normal sperm, the mean total number of spermatozoa is between 40 and 400 million. In addition to spermatozoa, sperm contain fructose which provides energy, alkaloids which prevents the harmful effects of the acidity of the urethra and the vagina, prostaglandins which cause contractions to the uterus and the fallopian tubes enabling the sperm to move forward, vitamin C, zinc and a few more traces of elements. Sperm may also carry a number of diseases including AIDS, however a healthy sperm is void of any disease and is safe to be used.
What is considered normal sperm? According to the World Health Organization