It has been observed that scraping of the endometrium during a hysteroscopy results in the increase of pregnancy rates. Continue reading
Spermatozoa are normally produced in the testes, however they may not be present in the sperm sample of some men. This may be due to:
These are treated with puncture using a fine needle of either the epididymis (Microepididymal sperm aspiration – MESA) or the testes (testicular sperm aspiration – TESA). This procedure is performed under anaesthesia and is very effective if combined with micromanipulation (ICSI).